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It is perhaps a sign of how far sub-Saharan Africa still has to go that the most vigorous — and certainly the best publicized — debate about its economic future in recent years has been between two American economists based in New York. On one side of the argument is Jeffrey D. Having spent so much of his energies in the s extolling the virtues of the free market to any Eastern European government that would listen, Sachs now argues — with equally unshakable conviction — that the elimination of African poverty can be achieved through state planning.

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In the summer ofit all seemed so simple: tens of thousands of well-intentioned campaigners waggled their white wristbands at Live8 and Bono and Bob Geldof urged the world's richest countries to 'Make Poverty History' by pouring cash into Africa. But according to this powerful book, aid alone will never be enough. If the 'bottom billion', the world's poorest people, are to spring the traps that have kept their economies stagnant for decades, Western governments will have to offer much more than money.

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So how does a country fall within the bottom billion group? When it comes to war-torn countries, Rwanda, Congo, Somalia and Sudan are some examples that fall into this category. As a result of the conflict, the economy is destroyed, lives of innocent civilians are damaged and the political unrest also causes isolation and a lack of foreign investment.

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Disadvantaged populations, such as the poor, pose a complex set of challenges to the process of economic development. While a girl child born in Japan in is expected to live for 86 years, deliver her child in a medical institution under skilled supervision and receive appropriate attention during her old age, her contemporary born in Angola, Lesotho, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Zambia or Zimbabwe is expected to live for about 40 years, deliver her child at home without any skilled supervision and struggle to receive adequate care during old age if she survives that long. The child cannot be faulted for this diverse prospect of length and quality of life: countries that are home to such disadvantaged population groups are in extreme poverty and express their helplessness to rescue such groups.

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In this elegant and impassioned synthesis from one of the world's leading experts on Africa and poverty, economist Paul Collier writes persuasively that although nearly five billion of the world's people are beginning to climb from desperate poverty and to benefit from globalization's reach to developing countries, there is a "bottom billion" of the world's poor whose countries, largely immune to the forces of global economy, are falling farther behind and are in danger of falling apart, separating permanently and tragically from the rest of the world. Collier identifies and explains the four traps that prevent the homelands of the world's billion poorest people from growing and receiving the benefits of globalization - civil war, the discovery and export of natural resources in otherwise unstable economies, being landlocked and therefore unable to participate in the global economy without great cost, and finally, ineffective governance. As he demonstrates that these billion people are quite likely in danger of being irretrievably left behind, Collier argues that we cannot take a "headless heart" approach to these seemingly intractable problems; rather, that we must harness our despair and our moral outrage at these inequities to a reasoned and thorough understanding of the complex and interconnected problems that the world's poorest people face.

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As a whole, these countries are poorer than they were inand their people live for an average of 50 years, seventeen years less than the rest of the developing world. To make his case for the various instruments necessary to break these countries free of their traps, Collier spends the first part of the book providing convincing explanations as to how and why the bottom billion have become trapped. Seventy-three percent of the bottom billion countries have recently been in, or continue to be in, a civil war.

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In the book Collier argues that there are many countries whose residents have experienced little, if any, income growth over the s and s. On his reckoning, there are just under 60 such economies, home to almost 1 billion people. The book suggests that, whereas the majority of the 5-billion people in the "developing world" are getting richer at an unprecedented rate, a group of countries mostly in Africa and Central Asia but with a smattering elsewhere [2] are stuck and that development assistance should be focused heavily on them.

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